Phenotypic and genotypic studies on biofilm formation in multi-drug resistance Enterobacter species in Al-Najaf province, Iraq

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq.


The objective of this work was to isolate and identify Enterobacter spp. responsible for various clinical infections in individuals, and to assess their ability to form biofilms. This study also aimed to detect bacterial taxa with antibiotic resistance. Recovered Enterobacter taxa shown resistance to many antibiotics out of 17 examined antibiotics based on antibiotic susceptibility test. This study revealed that all isolated Enterobacter spp. under investigation were capable of producing strong biofilms when assessed by using the tissue culture plate technique, whereas the majority of bacteria were able to do so using the Congo red agar method. Our results revealed that bacterial isolates that formed biofilms exhibited greater antibiotic resistance compared to bacterial isolates that did not develop biofilms.  Analysis of biofilm-associated genes revealed that among the 21 isolates of Enterobacter spp., 47.6% exhibited the fliC-d gene, whereas 42.9% were characterised by the csgD gene.


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